First the TEJAS Mk2 will come out, and then the TEDBF, and subsequently, the AMCA

Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL), India’s public-sector aerospace giant, is currently working on three indigenous fighter jets — TEJAS Mk2, Twin Engine Deck Based Fighter derived from the naval version of the TEJAS, and the fifth-generation Advanced Medium Combat Aircraft (AMCA).

Chairman and Managing Director of HAL, R Madhavan, has said that the prototypes of the three fighters will be ready in the next four years.

“So first the TEJAS Mk2 will come out, and then the TEDBF and then AMCA. Prototypes of all three will be out within 3-4 years,” Madhavan said in the interview, adding that HAL was looking at a seven to eight year time-frame for ‘each of these aircraft getting airborne’.


Contrary to what its name suggests, TEJAS-Mk2, a significantly modified version of TEJAS-Mk1, will actually be a medium-weight fighter aircraft.

Among other changes, the GE F404 engine in TEJAS Mk1 will be replaced with the more powerful F414 turbofan, and canards will be added behind the cockpit. While the new F414 turbofan engine will provide the fighter more thrust, canards will improve its manoeuvrability significantly.

As a result of the modifications being made by the Aeronautical Development Agency, the Mk2 variant will have higher payload capacities, giving it more weapon delivery options, and will carry more fuel, which will increase its range.

IAF may induct 12 TEJAS Mk2 squadrons (around 200 aircraft).

TEJAS-Mk1 is already in squadron service with the Indian Air Force (IAF). The second TEJAS squadron, Number 18 Squadron ‘Flying Bullets’, was operationalised in May. The first TEJASs were inducted into Number 45 Squadron ‘Flying Daggers’ in 2016.

16 TEJASs of the first order of 40 have been delivered to the IAF and a new order of 83 Mk.1A fighters is likely to be signed with HAL by the end of this year. HAL has improved the rate of production — a second assembly line has been set up.

“Our target rate is 16 [TEJAS fighters] per year, for which a second line has already been set up now. We can easily ramp up to 16-20 per year as and when we receive the 83 TEJAS order,” Madhavan has been quoted as saying.

Twin Engine Deck Based Fighter

TEDBF will be derived from the naval version of the TEJAS developed as a technology demonstrator.

The naval variant of the TEJAS has undergone a series of tests, including a series of arrested landings on the deck of aircraft carrier INS Vikramaditya in January this year to demonstrate the capability of its landing gear among other things.

Earlier, ADA was to develop a new version of the naval TEJAS.

However, due to design limitations, which were further complicated by the need for a heavy landing gear to bring a high-speed aircraft to a stop on the deck of the aircraft, the Navy and ADA were forced to ditch the plan.

A twin-engine fighter, which will have increased fuel and weapons carrying capability, is being developed now.

“The single engine TEJAS is not the aircraft for the navy. It cannot meet the requirements. What the navy needs is a twin-engine aircraft, because then only it can carry armaments, because the landing gear itself is quite heavy. So a Twin Engine Deck Based Fighter is what we’re looking at for the navy,” Madhavan said, adding that the “ADA has started the project, and this month they have got the clearance, and they are expecting it to be in service in 6-7 years”.

The experience gained from the development and testing of the TEJAS’s naval variant and the designing of AMCA will feed into the TEDBF program, although the fighter will not have stealth features like the latter.

The experience gained from the development and testing of the TEJAS’s naval variant and the designing of AMCA will feed into the TEDBF program, although the fighter will not have stealth features like the latter.

ADA, reports say, “is studying at least 3 variations of the design of the fighter. It’s still unclear whether the new fighter will be a tail-less delta platform, similar to the IAF's TEJAS fighter or, for that matter, feature canards, a small forewing placed ahead of the main wing of the aircraft to aid manoeuvrability”.

Advanced Medium Combat Aircraft

AMCA, India’s fifth-generation stealth fighter, is no new news. It has been in development for some years now, and latest reports say that the fighter jet will be built in partnership with a private player.

Madhavan has said that HAL and DRDO are looking to form a joint venture with a private-sector firm to execute this project.

“HAL and ADA are together in the design of AMCA. We are also looking at productionisation already — we want to create a special vehicle, a joint venture between HAL, DRDO and a private partner,” he has been quoted as saying.

According to a news report, the process of finding the private sector partner is all set to being and includes Larsen & Toubro, Lakshmi Machine Works Advanced Technology Centre, TATA Advanced Systems and at least three defence firms.

“Workshare, financials and other terms of reference are to be drawn up this year ahead of the decision on the private sector company,” the report says.