The game-changer, as per various experts were the Turkish attack drones that offered a crucial advantage to Azerbaijan over its adversary in the six-week war over Nagorno-Karabakh. Analysts fear that Turkey and even China could offer the same advantage to Pakistan if a war was to erupt with India over the flaring Kashmir dispute, the website stated in its mischievous article "Why This Pakistani Weapon Poses The ‘Gravest Danger’ To Indian Army If A War Erupts Over Kashmir?"

The website claims that Armenia reportedly lost about 185 T-72 tanks, 90 armoured fighting vehicles, 182 artillery pieces, 73 multiple rocket launchers, 26 surface-to-air missile systems, which include a Tor system and five S-300s, 14 radars or jammers, one SU-25 warplane, four drones and 451 military vehicles, as documented by analyst Stijn Mitzer in the military affairs blog Oryx.

It unilaterally proclaims that Azerbaijani armed drones from Azerbaijani mercilessly decimated the Armenian air defence systems, artillery guns and tanks and handed them a decisive victory over regional foe Armenia. Armenia has however denied these claims by the Azerbaijanis.

The game-changer, as per various experts were the Turkish attack drones that offered a crucial advantage to Azerbaijan over its adversary in the six-week war over Nagorno-Karabakh. Analysts fear that Turkey and even China could offer the same advantage to Pakistan if a war was to erupt with India over the flaring Kashmir dispute, the website further stated.

Turkey’s Bayraktar TB-2 drones helped Azerbaijan dominate the battlefield till the end, which is among the deadliest supplied to the country by Turkey. Just one-eighth the weight of a US MQ-9 Reaper and cruising at just 80 mph, the TB​-​2 carries four MAM (Turkish for Smart Micro Munition) laser-guided missiles and it is a Medium Altitude Long Endurance (MALE), Tactical Unmanned Aerial Vehicle capable of conducting Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) and armed attack missions.

Missing Out On Indian Capabilities

What the report fails to identify and report is that India has considerable capabilities to deal with issues raised by the website. Did you know that Electronics and Radar Development Establishment (LRDE) caters to the development of radar in India? This laboratory comes under the Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO). LRDE has successfully developed several radar systems and has installed them in the Indian Armed Forces.

The success stories of LRDE in the deployment of radar technology in the armed forces is a clear indication that its growth has been positive in India. It clears the path of DRDO to make India fiercely independent in terms of military technology in decreasing importing of foreign military equipment.

The initial projects of DRDO only consisted of short-range 2D systems. Currently, it manufactures high power 3D systems, fire control radars as well as airborne surveillance radars. 

RAJENDRA 3D Target Detection Radar is a multifunction electronically scanned phased array Radar which is the heart of Aakash Air Defence System. It is a passive electronically scanned array (PESA) radar and is used to guide Aakash missile to its target. Mounted on a two wheeled vehicle it fulfils multiple radar functions like surveillance, tracking and guidance. It is a multifunction radar, capable of surveillance, tracking and engaging low radar cross section targets. It is the heart of the Akash surface-to-air missile system and is the primary fire control sensor for an Akash battery. It can track 64 targets and engage 4 targets at a single time. Its range extends up to 80 kilometres and at an altitude of 18 km.

The 3D Tactical Control Radar is a state-of-the-art medium range surveillance and tracking radar that, while mounted on a mobile platform, effectively plays the role of medium range surveillance radar. The radar operates in the S band and covers 90 km. Is capable of track-scanning (TWS) of air borne targets. 3D Sophisticated Medium Range Surveillance & Trekking Radar. Track-scanning (TWS) of air-borne targets up to 90 km. ECCM Specifications - Side Lob Blanking, Frequency-Vibration and Jammer Analysis. Integrated IFF Merck XI, with Extractor and Coordinated Antennas. Formatted in two TATRA vehicles, one for radar and the other for energy source. Fully automated and controlled with user friendly GUI from radar console. Dedicated and engaging on-line BITE facility. Facility for training controllers, operators and technical members. Facility for automatic transmission of data to the target data receiver (located with weapon system), from radar to 20 km distance, using optical line, wire line and secure VHF radio set. For external networks on LAN - 500 m. Remote control of tracks and plots data. 100 m Facilitate remote control and diagnostic testing on the system.

The Rohini is an operating in S-Band ground based 3D medium range air surveillance radar providing detection and tracking air targets even under hostile EW operational environment. It is capable of handling multiple targets simultaneously and also precisely calculate the height at which projectiles are flying. Mounted on Tatra mobile platform, a heavy duty modified truck built by the public sector Bharat Earth Movers Limited (BEML) and supported by an auxiliary mobile power unit, it enables the Rohini to be easily transported to the battlefront. Operating in a range of up to 170 kilometres and an altitude of 15 kilometres, the Rohini radar can track multiple targets like fighter jets and missiles travelling at supersonic speeds of over 3,000 kms per hour. The radar employs an array of Electronic Counter Counter Measure (ECCM) features including frequency agility and jammer analysis. A Secondary Surveillance Radar, IFF, is integrated with the primary radar Rohini, which distinguishes friendly and hostile aircraft. About 100 pieces are expected to be built, with around 20 radars being manufactured every year.

Arudhra, a state-of-the-art radar, is being inducted towards strengthening the air defence in the Saurashtra-Kutch region and constitutes an important component in IAF's plan to achieve network-centric operations. Indian air defence surveillance network received a big boost with the Indian Air Force commissioning an Israeli-made medium-power radar (MPR) at Naliya in Gujarat in June 2011. Medium Power Radar Arudhra is a 4D rotating phased array radar. It can automatically detect and track targets ranging from fighter aircrafts to ballistic missiles to slow moving targets. It can either be stable and stare or be rotated for 360° coverage. In rotation mode, the antenna rotates at 7.5 / 15 rpm with surveillance coverage of 360° in azimuth and 30° in elevation. In staring mode of operation the antenna stares in specified azimuth with surveillance coverage of ±60° in azimuth and 30° in elevation. Design, development and production of MPRs were categorized as ‘Make’ category. ‘Buy and Make’ means buying a portion of demand, obtaining ToT and production in India for remaining demand. ‘Make’ means developed by DRDO laboratories through indigenous efforts and manufactured by an Indian production agency. Electronics and Radar Development Establishment (LRDE), a Bangalore-based DRDO establishment, took up the task and developed a fully engineered MPR for the IAF. The system has an instrumented range of 400 Km and is able to detect 2sqm RCS targets as far as 300 Km in range with the altitude coverage from 100 meters to 30 Km. IAF projected (November 2002) a requirement of 23 MPRs with active phased array radar technology for replacement [between X (2002-07) and XII (2012-17) Five Year Plan] of existing radars (PSM-33 radars, P-40 and TRS-2215 radars), which had completed their service life of 20 years.

Based on Air HQ ORs (November 2004) and due to non-availability of technology, MoD approved (April 2006) import of 15 MPRs by IAF and indigenous development of eight MPRs by LRDE with a delivery schedule of 60 months (April 2011). LRDE submitted (November 2006) a proposal to Air HQ for development of MPR using imported antenna through direct import of MAP antenna from M/s Thales, France at a cost of `97.84crore to meet IAF time frame of 36 months. However, Air HQ insisted (June 2007) LRDE to develop a fully indigenous MPR including its antenna using latest technology.

Reporter Tactical Control Radar is an early warning, alert and signalling system that includes weapon control functions. It has been specially designed for its high degree of mobility and easy transportability, by air or on land. This radar has minimal interference in the actions of both airfield defenders and good air users. The command and control capabilities of the radar, coupled with the ground-based effective airborne defence system, make the operation more and more effective, with safe, adequate and flexible use of the airspace. All weather day and night capability. 40 km range, giving a large coverage. Multiple target handling and engagement capability. Local threat evaluation and engagement calculations assist the commander's decision making process, and give effective local fire distribution. Easy to operate, and hence low manning requirements and stress reduction under severe conditions. Highly mobile system, to be used in all kinds of terrain, with short into and out of action times (deployment/redeployment) Clutter suppression. High resolution, which gives excellent target discrimination and allows accurate tracking.

INDRA-II is a variant of INDRA radar for ground controlled interception of targets. INDRA II is L Band low-flying detection radar that caters to the vital gap filling role in an air defence environment. It is a transportable and self-contained system with easy mobility and deployment features. The system consists mainly of an Antenna, Transmitter cabin and Display cabin mounted on three separate vehicles. The radar uses pulse compression for detection of low flying aircraft in heavy ground clutter with high range resolution and ECCM capabilities. The radar has been produced by Bharat Electronics Limited and is used by Indian Air Force and Army. Seven INDRA-IIs have been ordered by the Indian Air Force. (Radar Text Courtesy GlobalSecurity)

Swordfish is a Long Range Tracking Radar specifically developed to counter ballistic missile threat. It will be a part of India’s ballistic missile program. First testing of this radar was in March 2009. Main aim of the test was to validate the capabilities of the indigenously developed Swordfish Long Range Tracking Radar (LRTR). “The missile to be hit will be fired from a longer distance than it was in the earlier test. DRDO tested whether the radar could track the incoming missile from that distance or not” said a member of the project. Swordfish is an acknowledged derivative of the Israeli Green Pine long range radar, which is the critical component of that country’s Arrow missile defence system. However, it differs from the Israeli system as it employs Indian Transmit Receive modules, signal processing, computers and power supplies. It is also more powerful than the base Green Pine system and was developed to meet India’s specific BMD needs. Though Swordfish is primarily meant to intercept hostile ballistic projectiles, it has the shown capabilities to detect objects as small as even a cricket ball.

AEROSTAT Radar are large fabric envelopes filled with helium, and can rise up to an altitude of 15,000 feet (4,600 m) while tethered by a single cable. The largest lifts a 1,000 kg payload to an operating altitude providing low-level, downward-looking radar coverage. The first aerostats were assigned to the United States Air Force in December 1980 at Cudjoe Key, Fla. During the 1980s, the U.S. Customs Service operated a network of aerostats to help counter illegal drug trafficking.


All the aforementioned radars provide India with immense capabilities to thwart airborne threats from hostile projectiles from our adversaries. The Feb 2019 encounter of intruding Pak fighters by IAF fighters is a clear example of India's competence of protecting its airspace. The Pakistani fighters where chased by IAF fighters right from the word go (based on multiple preceding radar inputs) and were unable to enter Indian airspace. So much so, that Abhinandan had the temerity to chase a much superior fighter inside Pakistani airspace, but was unfortunately shot down before he took down the PAF F-16, his chute unfortunately drifted into PoK territory due to high winds. It is certain that PAF will never undertake a mission of similar nature in the future else they would face a more brutal attack from the IAF, leave alone sending drones into the battlefield.

Besides, India has is in possession of several missiles to cater to such eventualities.

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