With continued violence in Kashmir and a heightened threat of terrorist activity by Pakistan-based militant groups, tensions and concerns over a serious military confrontation between nuclear-armed neighbours India and Pakistan remain high.

The line of control which lies between the Indian and Pakistani controlled parts of the former princely state of Kashmir and Jammu is the de facto boundary which is generally respected by both sides. Indian and Pakistani troops have on occasion tried to alter the areas under their control in large scale operations. There have also been punitive expeditions across the border.

1. Indian Soldiers Attacked Pakistani Post

On September 18, 2003, A Pakistani post near Bhimber Gali in Poonch attacked by Indian soldiers. A Junior Commissioned Officer (JCO) and three soldiers were killed in the attack. Pakistan even lodged a complaint with the United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP).

2. Indian Para Commandos Conducted A Covert Strike Across The Border

On August 26, 2011, a deadly surgical strike by the Indian Army in Pakistani territory in 2011 left at least eight Pakistani soldiers dead, with three of them decapitated, a report published on said. Pakistani soldiers Subedar Parvez, Havildar Aftab and Naik Imran were beheaded, their heads and rank insignias were brought to India.

3. 2016 India–Pakistan Military Confrontation -- Surgical Strikes

In wee hours of September 29, 2016, the Indian army carried out surgical strikes across the Line of Control destroying at least seven terror launchpads in PoK. The strikes came 10 days after a brutal terror attack on an Army camp in Uri, North Kashmir along the LoC left 19 soldiers dead. The commandos of the elite Parachute regiment carried out the special operation with clinical precision after getting a go-ahead from the Union government.

4. Pakistani Patrol Attacked At A Temporary Post In Rukh Chakri Sector In Rawlakot

On December, 25, 217, Ghatak commandos ambushed a Pakistani patrol at a temporary post in Rukh Chakri sector in Rawlakot. India claimed that a team of 4-5 Ghatak commandos of Poonch Brigade under 25 Division crossed over about 200-300m across the LoC and attacked a Pakistani patrol consisting of 8-10 men in a retaliatory strike.

5. 2019 Balakot Airstrike

The Indian Air Force airstrike in the town of Balakot killed about 300 militants, said media reports. Indian warplanes crossed the de facto border in the disputed region of Kashmir, and dropped bombs in the vicinity of the town of Balakot in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province in Pakistan. India has confirmed the attack on the biggest training camp of Jaish-e-Mohammad, the terror group which was involved in the February 14 attack on a CRPF convoy. Twelve Mirage 2000 fighter jets struck joint training camps of Jaish and LeT inside Pakistan and completely destroyed them by shelling 1,000 kg bombs. It took 19 minutes to complete the operation.