A Chinese supplied nuke-capable ballistic missile to Pakistan

In 1999, the US Defence Intelligence Agency (DIA) published a report titled 'A Primer on the Future Threat: the Decades Ahead 1999-2020,' estimating Pakistan's nuclear weapons to be between 60 and 80. In September 2021, according to a nuclear notebook published in the journal Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Pakistan's nuclear stockpile had grown to over 165 weapons.

The Federation of American Scientists estimates that Pakistan's nuclear arsenal may reach about 200 weapons by 2025 if present trends continue. Pakistan's nuclear arsenal has never been made public. Pakistan's nuclear capabilities are expected to grow in the next years, according to the newspaper.

According to experts, analysing Pakistan's nuclear capabilities is riddled with ambiguity because the government has never officially declared the amount of its arsenal. In early 2020, Pakistan possessed around 3,900 kg of weapon-grade highly enriched uranium and about 410 kg of weapons-grade plutonium, according to the study. According to a report, the National Defence Complex in the Kala Chitta Dahr mountain range is where nuclear-capable missiles and launchers are developed. The Pakistan Ordnance facilities in Wah are suspected of being involved in the development of nuclear warheads, according to researchers.

At least six nuclear-capable land-based ballistic missiles are active in Pakistan. The Shaheen-III missiles, with an estimated range of 2,750 kilometres, would bring Israel inside range for the first time, according to researchers. The nuclear capabilities of Pakistan's F-16s and JF-17s aircraft are not included in the notebook due to "uncertainties."