Berlin: Germany has arrested three people suspected of supplying sensitive technologies to China, whereas, the UK has arrested two, reported Al Jazeera.

The prosecutors in Berlin said that the three German nationals had handed technologies with potential military purposes to Chinese intelligence, with whom they have been working since at least June 2022.

Meanwhile, the UK said the arrested duo were providing "prejudicial information" to Beijing, according to Al Jazeera.

These arrests come as Western states continue to express concern over China's economic and geopolitical policies.

Moreover, the trio arrested in Germany is also accused of exporting a special laser without permission, which was highlighted as violating the country's export laws.

Reacting to these arrests, the Chinese embassy in Berlin said Beijing firmly rejected accusations that it carried out spying activities in Germany, reported Al Jazeera.

The federal prosecutor identified the main suspect as Thomas R, known as an agent for a China-based employee of China's Ministry of State Security (MSS).

Herwig F and Ina F - a married couple who run a company in Dusseldorf - were recruited to procure cooperation from researchers.

The couple, through their company, concluded a cooperation agreement with a German university, part of which involved preparing a study for a Chinese contractor on machine parts that can be used for operating powerful marine engines such as combat ships, the statement said.

The Chinese contract partner was the same MSS employee from whom Thomas R received his orders, and all three suspects worked together, the statement added.

According to the prosecutors, the suspects bought the special laser from Germany on behalf of and with payment from the MSS and exported it to China without authorisation.

German authorities accused the suspects of violating the country's Foreign Trade and Payments Act (FTPA), which criminalises economic espionage, Al Jazeera reported.

German authorities said the alleged cooperation with the Chinese state service began around "an indeterminable date before June 2022".

Following their arrest, all three will be arraigned at the Federal Court of Justice in Karlsruhe, southwest Germany on Tuesday, and could face a fine or imprisonment of up to five or 10 years, according to local media reports.

Interior Minister Nancy Faeser called the arrests "a great success for our counterespionage".

"We are keeping an eye on the significant danger from Chinese espionage in business, industry and science," she said in a statement. "We are watching these risks and threats very closely and have warned and sensitized people clearly so that protective measures can be stepped up everywhere."

Moreover, the arrests come just days after German Chancellor Olaf Scholz visited China, where, he pressed Beijing to guarantee German firms equal market access and also conveyed concerns in Europe about Beijing's economic policies and support for Russia in its invasion of Ukraine.

(With Agency Inputs)