China fails to realise that India actually manages Arunachal Pradesh legally while it merely claims it. As the Chinese way of saying it- "Arunachal Pradesh is an integral and inalienable part of India", writes Amrita Jash, Assistant Professor at the Department of Geopolitics and International Relations at the Manipal Academy of Higher Education (MAHE) in Manipal in her report for Border Lens.

The report also states that: "China rejects the McMahon Line, the boundary between China and India, which it calls "illegal" and "unacceptable", for the following reasons: first, the Sino-Indian boundary has never been properly demarcated; no treaty or agreement has been made between the Chinese Central Government and the government of India."

Secondly, Beijing believes the McMahon Line to be an imperialist legacy.

What is interesting to note though is that in 1960, Beijing accepted the McMahon Line, which China adamantly condemns in the case of Arunachal Pradesh, in order to settle the border dispute with Myanmar.

Initially, China only laid claim to the Tawang region of Arunachal Pradesh. Since the 1980s, however, Beijing has started claiming all of Arunachal Pradesh as part of its 'South Tibet' territory.

"Chinese transgressions along the LAC and episodes of stand-offs are a common behavioural pattern demonstrated by China in asserting its sovereignty claims over Arunachal Pradesh," writes Amrita Jash for Border Lens.

Official Chinese maps have renamed some locations in Arunachal Pradesh. The Chinese Ministry of Aviation in December 2021, standardised the names of 15 locations in Arunachal Pradesh.

China has also condemned the visit of Indian leaders and the Dalai Lama to Arunachal Pradesh.

"As in recent times, Beijing's objection was noted against Vice President M. Venkaiah Naidu's visit to Arunachal Pradesh in October 2021. China's opposition stands invalid given Arunachal Pradesh is a state of India, as the Ministry of External Affairs rightly posited: "Objecting to the visit of Indian leaders to a state of India does not stand to reason and understanding of the Indian people"," writes Jash.

Beijing also claims to have built 'Xiaokang' village models along the Upper Subansiri district of Arunachal Pradesh, the author reported.

Recently, it was reported that despite the recent Tawang face-off between the Indian and Chinese soldiers in the Yangtse area, the local villagers of Zemithang are not worried about such type of incident and they have full confidence in the Union government and the Indian Army and are certain that they will protect them.

Zemithang with a population of about 5,000 is the last village in India. It is located in Arunachal Pradesh's Tawang district and is just 10 km away from the LAC.

Zemithang is the last border village of Arunachal Pradesh along the Indo-China border.