Beijing: Many nations across the world are grappling over whether to accept or reject Huawei Networks 5G technology - a leading Chinese company amid charges of spying.

Valerio Fabbri, writing in said that in some countries, Huawei faces product and 5G wireless network bans, security scrutiny and related pushback. Many countries allege that the company's products may contain security holes that China's government could use for spying.

Furthermore, some countries allege that Huawei steals intellectual property from foreign technology companies. Despite such obstacles, many countries have proceeded with Huawei as a potential or confirmed choice for 5G wireless network projects and associated infrastructure.

The story of the arrest of Huawei company official Meng Wanzhou, Chief Financial Officer, in December 2018 at the request of the US and her release in September 2021, reflects the larger concerns of many nations.

A Council for Foreign Relations (CFR) Report (29 March 2021) on China's Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) shows that, in addition to the United States, eight other countries, close allies of the US, have issued outright bans on the company.

In May this year, Canada announced that it was banning both Huawei and ZTE, a Chinese telecommunication company based in Senzhen, from working on its 5G networks, said Fabbri.

In September 2019, Huawei's founder Ren Zhengfei dismissed US accusations that the company was helping China to spy on Western governments. Huawei said it was willing to sign "no-spy" agreements with governments, including the UK, amid US pressure on European countries to shun Huawei over espionage concerns.

The US Department of Justice (DOJ) charged Huawei with bank fraud and stealing trade secrets. In a 13-count indictment, the DOJ charged Huawei, its chief financial officer, the afore-mentioned Meng Wanzhou, and two affiliated firms with crimes including conspiracy, money laundering, bank and wire fraud, flouting US sanctions on Iran and obstruction of justice, reported

The US had alleged that Meng misled the HSBC bank over the true nature of Huawei's relationship with a company called Skycom, putting the bank at risk of violating US sanctions against Iran, said Fabbri.

Globally, multiple factors have heightened media coverage and discussion about Huawei. Questions about its business practices intensified amidst the US-China trade war. Also, numerous countries and companies worldwide are considering 5G wireless network rollouts.

The US DOJ case against Huawei provides the legal basis for a ban by many countries. US government officials say Huawei is dangerous in part because it uses its growing share of the telecom equipment market to spy for the Chinese government.

As far back as 2012, a US House Intelligence Committee report had tagged Huawei and ZTE as potential security threats. Concerns about Huawei drove the 2018 decision by then-President Donald Trump to block a hostile takeover bid from Broadcom, based at the time in Singapore, for the US chipmaker Communal.

The deal could have curtailed American investments in chip and wireless technologies and handed global leadership to Huawei, which allegedly circumvented sanctions imposed on North Korea and Iran, by providing them with telecom equipment that can be used for extensive spying on populations, essentially dual-use technologies, reported

Several countries have warned against using Chinese hardware because of security concerns, which stem from the Chinese government's use of Huawei's products to spy on people around the world, said Fabbri.

In the Pacific region, Australia blocked Huawei and ZTE from providing equipment for its 5G network. At the same time, Australian media reports suggest that government officials had advised India to ban Huawei from supplying parts for a rollout of a high-speed telecommunications network.

France had announced telecommunications operators would not be able to renew licenses for Huawei equipment when they expired, effectively phasing out the company's presence.

Vietnam has not barred Huawei, but its service providers have avoided using its equipment in both their 4G and 5G networks.

Sweden's ban was amongst the most direct in Europe.