While cross-border terrorism and crimes remain major concerns, by 2023 the Narendra Modi-led Centre will have spent close to Rs 7,000 crore since 2020 to transform the infrastructure at and manage five key borders.

The ministry of home affairs has told parliament about the project on different occasions. New projects have also been initiated from a particular fund for border infrastructure.

In 2020, the central government approved the construction of 32 India-China Border Roads (ICBR)-II, measuring 683.12 km, at an estimated cost of Rs 12,434.90 crore. Work has started on eight roads and land acquisition and other statutory clearances have been obtained for 18 other roads while work is on for 14.

Similarly, for the development of critical infrastructure in border areas of Arunachal Pradesh, the government in 2020 approved the construction of 18 foot tracks (including requisite number of foot suspension bridges, log bridges and staging camps), measuring 598.27 km at an estimated cost of Rs 1,162.19 crore. Land acquisition and other statutory clearances are on.

Indo-China Border

The government initiated a project under which 25 ICBR-I roads will be constructed. These roads will connect border areas from other parts of the state making the border more accessible. Similarly, construction of 32 ICBR-II roads are also on. The project is to build a total of 177 roads of 10,000 km along the China border. Similarly, a critical road on the Indo-China border is also being constructed.

The MHA has undertaken the construction of 25 ICBR-I roads measuring 751.58 km along the Indo-China border at an estimated cost of Rs 3,482.52 crore. Out of 751.58 km, formation of 721.02 km (95 per cent) and surfacing of 545.05 km (74 per cent) has been completed. As many as 18 roads measuring 475.29 km have been completed and are operational. Work on seven roads is on.

A standalone project for roads is underway with an upgrade for 32 helipads in Ladakh. The construction of 18 foot tracks in Arunachal Pradesh are on the list of infrastructure projects of the government.

Another project is that of 47 new ITBP border outposts (BOPs) and 12 staging camps, which will boost ITBP that guards the Indo-China border.

Indo-Pakistan Border

The most important border due to infiltration and terrorism, the government has planned massive development work at the Indo-Pak border. The government plans to increase fencing and road works in the next two years.

The MHA is also monitoring the work of installing flood lights so that troops can keep an eye on suspicious movement at night. A large area has already been covered. Another important development project is construction of lateral and axial roads in Punjab and Rajasthan. The home ministry is also involved in deployment of technological solutions like anti-drone technology, thermal imaging, movement sensors among others.

The MHA is also supervising the work of border outposts to keep strict vigil on the Indo-Pak border. The government is constructing marine infrastructure in Gujarat so that smugglers can be traced and intercepted by the forces.

Indo-Nepal And Indo-Bhutan Border

The government is constructing a 1,377-km road network along the Indo-Nepal border in Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand. Apart from this, development of infrastructure and land acquisition for SSB BOPs are also on. The government is also installing land ports for smooth flow of supplies and easy clearance at these borders, and both countries are in touch with India.

Indo-Myanmar Border

One of the important borders, it will have a company operating base (COB) of Assam Rifles soon. The MHA is in the process of construction close to the Myanmar border. Similarly, the work is also on for the construction of fence and road along the Indo-Myanmar border.

Indo-Bangladesh Border

In the last few years, the government has expedited work at the Indo-Bangladesh border due to illegal movement. The MHA is supervising various developmental work, which includes fencing and roadworks, construction of Indo-Bangladesh road (Phase II) and bridges from BOP Simna to BOP Harinakhola in Tripura.

The government is also inducting technology solutions to monitor the border apart from construction of BOPs. Just like the Indo-Pak border, the Modi-led government has planned to stall flood lights and watch towers on this border, apart from improving existing infrastructure.